Posts Tagged ‘2018’

Spotlight #61 – Digging into soil and what it means to earth’s survival

PDF for download

 

The new living structures are the result of the re-elaboration of the old ones. Soil plays the main role in the process. So, humans who endanger life on our planet express a severe disagreement with a natural harmony that risks triggering negative feedback for the species. This always occurs to other species, why shouldn’t it happen to us? In: Zanella et al., 2018. Humusica 1, article 1: Essential bases – Vocabulary. Applied Soil Ecology, 122 (Part a), pp. 10–21.

Most people think of soil simply as something that grass, trees and other plants grow in and on.

But nothing could be further from the truth, says Dr. Augusto Zanella. Below in quotes, some key concepts gathered during an IUFRO Spotlight interview.

“Soils – in the forest and elsewhere – involve and affect ‘normal life’. They modify the air we breathe, they influence the climate, impact the food we eat and the water we drink”.

“Soil is not a substrate or a source of nutrients. It is a living matrix that sustains the functioning of every ecosystem”.

“It works like an efficient bank. It capitalizes energy and nutrients to be delivered for building and sustaining more complex and efficient ecosystems. It is a source of new materials, continuously generated from biodegradation and re-elaboration of dead structures”.

“A comparison between natural and anthropic soil systems revealed the importance of the biological structure of soil for understanding and managing how the soil functions. Anthropic soil is that worked by humans in a way to produce new characteristics that make it different from the original natural soil”.

“There is a connection between the soil and produced food qualities. There is a relationship between the type of agriculture and climate warming. There is a relationship between forestry, agriculture, soil and human development/health. And there is an interconnected soil in space, air, water and all living organisms.”

Dr. Zanella, of the University of Padua, Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry, and Deputy Coordinator of IUFRO Working Party 8.02.03 – Humus and soil biodiversity, is one of the proponents of Humusica, a concept that looks at soil and soil research from a somewhat different perspective and seeks to provide an international and consistent soil classification system.

“It is a new concept of soil; more biological and connected to the process of natural evolution. It’s soil seen as the place of the endless recycling of structures that grow old and die. Life cannot exist without death. Soil is the conjunction that links the two.”

In a slight digression from the interview, 40-odd years ago, American writer and environmentalist Wendell Berry put it somewhat differently, but seemed to capture some of the essence of what Dr. Zanella and his colleagues believe when he said: “If a healthy soil is full of death, it is also full of life:  worms, fungi, microorganisms of all kinds …  Given only the health of the soil, nothing that dies is dead for very long.”

As part of this new concept of soil, it would be beneficial, Dr. Zanella says, to have a standardized vocabulary and classification system for humus forms. That would be of immense benefit to anyone who works with soil. And, on different levels, that’s pretty well everybody from policymakers to foresters, landscapers, farmers and weekend gardeners, he says.

To that end, he and his colleagues have produced a series of Humusica articles that, among other things, answer “three crucial” questions:

  1. What is soil?
  2. If soil has a biogenic essence, how should it be classified to serve such managerial purposes as exploitation or protection? And
  3. How can this soil classification be used for handling the current global change?

The Humusica papers are presented in the form of a field manual that is “a fundamental tool for assessing everything from land use to climate change,” Dr. Zanella says.

In addition to the publications, there is also a free iOS app – TerrHum – available through the iTunes App Store. It is a University of Padua app that allows the main content of the Humusica 1 field guide to be stored on a cell phone. With this app (an app that is compatible with non-Apple products is currently in development) it is possible to classify all non-submerged forest topsoils on the planet.

He reiterates that this is a new way of looking at soil. “By accepting a concept of soil related to the ‘planet Earth digestive system’, that involves microorganisms distributed everywhere, I better understand myself and the world in which I live.

For instance, I better understand why I should prefer agriculture that pays attention to the quality of the soil, because that has a crucial influence on the quality of the produced food, and human health depends on it.”

He adds that, given current global change conditions, soil – and how we humans handle it – will be critical to human survival. Climate change should be a top-of-mind concern, but there seems to be a general lack of consciousness to the danger.

“The current climate warming will probably be the first major trial that conscious humanity has to overcome in order not to perish. The soil will be a crucial resource in that survival process.”

This field manual and classification system (explained in 87 articles, arranged in three Special Issues) can help fight the adverse effects of global change by using the collected knowledge about the biodiversity and functioning of natural (or semi-natural) soil to reconstruct the lost biodiversity and-or functioning of heavily exploited or degraded soils, he says.

The Humusica articles are collected in the Applied Soil Ecology Special Issues Vol. 122 a, 122 b and 123:
https://www.journals.elsevier.com/applied-soil-ecology/special-issues
Information about the Humusica project and publications can also be found on the webpages of IUFRO Unit 8.02.03 – Humus and soil biodiversity: https://www.iufro.org/science/divisions/division-8/80000/80200/80203/publications/

 

View all IUFRO Spotlights at http://www.iufro.org/media/iufro-spotlights/

International Knowledge-Sharing Workshop “Best Practices for Implementing FLR in South Asia”

Chilaw, Sri Lanka, 15-17 August 2018

As follow-up to the 2017 consultations in India, the Ministry of Mahaweli Development and Environment, Sri Lanka, in cooperation with the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) organised a knowledge-sharing workshop on best practices in implementing forest landscape restoration (FLR) in South Asian countries. Around 60 experts contributed to the workshop, including partners from governmental and non-governmental institutions in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka as well as international expert organisations of the Global Partnership on Forest and Landscape Restoration (GPFLR) such as FAO, IUCN, TROPENBOS and CIFOR.

Generous funding for the workshop was provided by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety; The Global Environment Facility; National Institute of Forest Science, Republic of Korea; and the United States Forest Service.

Read more…

Spotlight #60 – Creating a virtuous circle in forest operations

PDF for download

 

A newly published study entitled Sustainable Forest Operations (SFO): A new paradigm in a changing world and climate, indicates that “climate change, as well as the increasing demand for forest products, requires a rethinking of forest operations in terms of sustainability.”

The complex system of relationships involved in the SFO concept and its five performance areas including: Economics; ergonomics; environment; quality optimization; and people and society. (Credit: Enrico Marchi, Florence University, Italy)

The study suggests that the SFO concept provides integrated perspectives and approaches to effectively address ongoing and foreseeable challenges while balancing forest operations performance across economic, environmental and social sustainability objectives.

This new concept emphasizes that forest workers’ ergonomics, health and safety, and utilization efficiency and waste management are additional key elements that enrich the understanding of the sustainability in SFO.

In addition, through the promotion of afforestation and reforestation, improved forest management, and green building and furnishing, the SFO concept further emphasizes the role of wood as a renewable and environmentally friendly material. Read more…

Spotlight #59 – Shifting forest development discourses

PDF for download

 

Conservation provides employment for local inhabitants at Dzanga Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic. ©Peter Prokosch, http://www.grida.no/resources/1516

Many centuries ago, a Greek philosopher noted that change is the only constant in life.

And change is brought about, in many instances, through discourse.

Discourse has been described in part as: “an ensemble of ideas, concepts and categories through which meaning is given to social and physical phenomena…”

According to this definition, discourse refers to a particular set of related ideas, which are shared, debated and communicated using different formats.

Through various discourses, we can discover fresh information and be introduced to new and different perspectives. We are able to gain experience and insight. As a result, our thinking, our attitudes, and our approaches toward various issues can evolve and change.

Certainly the ways in which forests are viewed, managed and developed have changed as the discourses concerning them have evolved. Read more…

The power of science to halt deforestation

NOTE: This text is reblogged from a blog coauthored by Vincent Gitz (FTA) and IUFRO Vice-President John Parrotta about Session 16 on “The Role of Science and Research” at the Halting Deforestation conference:  http://foreststreesagroforestry.org/the-power-of-science-to-halt-deforestation/

**********************************************

A coffee plantation is pictured on a hillside in Lampung, Indonesia. Photo by U. Ifansasti/CIFOR

Science and research can offer significant contributions to halting deforestation and increasing the area of healthy forests around the world in a sustainable manner. 

With halting and reversing deforestation seen as key to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the objectives of the Paris agreement on climate change, the Collaborative Partnership on Forests organized from Feb. 20-22 the conference “Working across sectors to halt deforestation and increase forest area” in Rome, to discuss ways of meeting these targets in the coming years with various actors and stakeholders. Read more…

Spotlight #58 – To build a healthier city, build a better forest

PDF for download

 

Design of trees along streets is important to minimize trapping of pollutants along sidewalks and roads. Photo: David Nowak

City dwellers around the world could live healthier lives and see health care costs shrink simply by implementing better urban forest design, planning and management.

Recent innovative studies conducted in Canada and the U.S. show that trees remove air pollution – both gaseous and particulate pollutants – and this has a beneficial effect on human health.

And, while the concepts of trees scrubbing the air and cleaner air having beneficial effects are not particularly new, “the innovation derives from linking pollution removal by trees to human health in cities,” said Dr. David Nowak of the US Forest Service, and one of the authors of the studies. Read more…

IUFRO - The International Union of Forest Research Organizations